Viewing the World in Binary

OSPF – Virtual Links

Topology is as follows (Snagged from Multiarea OSPF topology)

 

 

First step for debuging Virtual Links starts with the following ‘show’ command – ‘sh ip ospf virtual-links’.  Following output is from ABR connected to Area 0 and the current status of Virtual Link is DOWN.

 

 

 

 

 

! ABR-1-0  ! Area 1 – Area 0 – ABR Router

interface Loopback0                                  ! Loopback interface defined 
 ip address 101.0.0.2 255.255.255.255
!
interface Serial0/0                                    ! Interface in Area 1
 ip address 1.1.1.6 255.255.255.252
 serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial0/1                                   ! Interface in Area 0
 ip address 192.0.0.17 255.255.255.252
 serial restart-delay 0
!
router ospf 1
 log-adjacency-changes
 area 1 virtual-link 101.0.0.1                   ! Virtual Link to area 0 via transit area 1
 network 1.1.1.4 0.0.0.3 area 1
 network 101.0.0.2 0.0.0.0 area 0            ! Loopback added to Area 0
 network 192.0.0.16 0.0.0.3 area 0

! ABR-VL-R8 ! Area 1 – Area 10 – ABR Router with Virtual Link to Area 0 via Area 1

interface Loopback0
 ip address 101.0.0.1 255.255.255.255
!
interface Serial0/0
 ip address 1.1.1.9 255.255.255.252
 serial restart-delay 0
!
interface Serial0/1
 ip address 10.10.1.6 255.255.255.252
 serial restart-delay 0
!
router ospf 1
 log-adjacency-changes
 area 1 virtual-link 101.0.0.2
 network 1.1.1.8 0.0.0.3 area 1
 network 10.10.10.4 0.0.0.3 area 10
 network 101.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 area 0

Everything looks good on the configuration end. Lets reboot the two ABR’s (would be fun in production network). Virtual Link came up after the reboot – so it may be Dynamips issues, I will take that and end my case. Will see if I can log this case with Dynamips and if anyone else has faced the same.

 OSPF is running as Demand Circuit and LSA’s are not aged out/refreshed on Virtual Links. 

 

 

 

 

 

‘sh ip ospf neighbor’ command on ABR on Area 0 and Area 1 boundary should show the non-Area0 connected router,

 

 

 

 There are a few things which should be on debugging checklist for Virtual Links –

  • Make sure transit area can reach both loopback addresses on both ABR’s.
  • Stub Area can not act as Transit Area for Virtual Links.
  • Configure Authentication on Virtual Link when Area 0 has authentication enabled.

Since I have started writing on VL’s, I will take this oppurtunity to experiment with last two scenario’s.

Configuring VL Transit Area Router (A1-R2) as  Stub router with ‘area 1 stub‘ command.

A1-R2(config-router)#
*Mar  1 04:05:01.122: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 101.0.0.2 on Serial0/2 from FULL
 to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Adjacency forced to reset
*Mar  1 04:05:01.126: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 101.0.0.1 on Serial0/1 from FULL
 to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Adjacency forced to reset

ABR-VL-R8#
*Mar  1 00:48:12.587: OSPF: 1.1.1.10 address 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 is dead
*Mar  1 00:48:12.587: OSPF: 1.1.1.10 address 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 is dead, state DOWN
*Mar  1 00:48:12.591: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighb
or Down: Dead timer expired
*Mar  1 00:48:13.091: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 1, router ID 101.0.0.1, seq 0x8000000E
*Mar  1 00:48:18.103: OSPF: Interface OSPF_VL0 going Down
*Mar  1 00:48:18.107: OSPF: 101.0.0.1 address 0.0.0.0 on OSPF_VL0 is dead, state DOWN
*Mar  1 00:48:18.111: OSPF: 101.0.0.2 address 1.1.1.6 on OSPF_VL0 is dead, state DOWN
*Mar  1 00:48:18.111: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighb
or Down: Interface down or detached

*Mar  1 00:48:18.615: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 1, router ID 101.0.0.1, seq 0x8000000F
*Mar  1 00:48:18.619: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 0, router ID 101.0.0.1, seq 0x8000000D
*Mar  1 00:48:20.731: OSPF: Rcv pkt from OSPF_VL0 src 1.1.1.6 dst 1.1.1.9 id 101.0.0.2 type 5 if_sta
te 0 : ignored due to unknown neighbor
*Mar  1 00:48:22.887: OSPF: Rcv pkt from OSPF_VL0 src 1.1.1.6 dst 1.1.1.9 id 101.0.0.2 type 4 if_sta
te 0 : ignored due to unknown neighbor

 

Reverting our Configuration on A1-R2 as a non-stub area with ‘no area 1 stub

‘debug ip ospf adjacency’ output from ABR-VL-R8. Highlighted and underlined are the states of a neighbor relationship. Indented highlights our virtual link transitioning to UP state.

*Mar  1 00:49:15.123: OSPF: 2 Way Communication to 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0, state 2WAY
*Mar  1 00:49:15.127: OSPF: Send DBD to 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 seq 0x1719 opt 0x52 flag 0x7 len 32
*Mar  1 00:49:15.263: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 seq 0x7F9 opt 0x52 flag 0x7 len 32  m
tu 1500 state EXSTART
*Mar  1 00:49:15.267: OSPF: First DBD and we are not SLAVE
*Mar  1 00:49:15.267: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 seq 0x1719 opt 0x52 flag 0x2 len 132
 mtu 1500 state EXSTART
*Mar  1 00:49:15.271: OSPF: NBR Negotiation Done. We are the MASTER
*Mar  1 00:49:15.275: OSPF: Send DBD to 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 seq 0x171A opt 0x52 flag 0x3 len 132
*Mar  1 00:49:15.543: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 seq 0x171A opt 0x52 flag 0x0 len 32
mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE
*Mar  1 00:49:15.547: OSPF: Send DBD to 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 seq 0x171B opt 0x52 flag 0x1 len 32
*Mar  1 00:49:15.551: OSPF: Send LS REQ to 1.1.1.10 length 24 LSA count 2
*Mar  1 00:49:15.559: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 length 100 LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:49:15.903: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 length 76 LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:49:15.907: OSPF: Rcv LS REQ from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 length 36 LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:49:15.907: OSPF: Send UPD to 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 length 40 LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:49:15.999: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 seq 0x171B opt 0x52 flag 0x0 len 32
mtu 1500 state EXCHANGE
*Mar  1 00:49:15.999: OSPF: Exchange Done with 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0
*Mar  1 00:49:16.003: OSPF: Synchronized with 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0, state FULL
*Mar  1 00:49:16.003: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 from LOADING to FULL, Loa
ding Done
*Mar  1 00:49:16.007: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 length 148 LSA count 2
*Mar  1 00:49:16.507: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 1, router ID 101.0.0.1, seq 0x80000010
*Mar  1 00:49:19.971: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 length 104 LSA count 2
*Mar  1 00:49:20.751: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 length 112 LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:49:24.835: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 length 104 LSA count 2
*Mar  1 00:49:30.579: OSPF: Interface OSPF_VL0 going Up
*Mar  1 00:49:30.687: OSPF: 2 Way Communication to 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0, state 2WAY
*Mar  1 00:49:30.687: OSPF: Send DBD to 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 seq 0x6EB opt 0x72 flag 0x7 len 32
*Mar  1 00:49:31.387: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 seq 0x1FDE opt 0x72 flag 0x7 len 32
mtu 0 state EXSTART
*Mar  1 00:49:31.391: OSPF: NBR Negotiation Done. We are the SLAVE
*Mar  1 00:49:31.391: OSPF: Send DBD to 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 seq 0x1FDE opt 0x72 flag 0x2 len 192
*Mar  1 00:49:31.767: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 seq 0x1FDF opt 0x72 flag 0x3 len 172
 mtu 0 state EXCHANGE
*Mar  1 00:49:31.767: OSPF: Send DBD to 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 seq 0x1FDF opt 0x72 flag 0x0 len 32
*Mar  1 00:49:31.947: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 seq 0x1FE0 opt 0x72 flag 0x1 len 32
mtu 0 state EXCHANGE
*Mar  1 00:49:31.951: OSPF: Exchange Done with 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0
*Mar  1 00:49:31.951: OSPF: Send LS REQ to 101.0.0.2 length 12 LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:49:31.955: OSPF: Send DBD to 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 seq 0x1FE0 opt 0x72 flag 0x0 len 32
*Mar  1 00:49:31.959: OSPF: Rcv LS REQ from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 length 48 LSA count 2
*Mar  1 00:49:31.963: OSPF: Send UPD to 1.1.1.6 on OSPF_VL0 length 68 LSA count 2
*Mar  1 00:49:32.023: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 length 64 LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:49:32.027: OSPF: Synchronized with 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0, state FULL
*Mar  1 00:49:32.027: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 from LOADING to FULL, Loa
ding Done

*Mar  1 00:49:32.535: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 1, router ID 101.0.0.1, seq 0x80000011
*Mar  1 00:49:32.543: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 0, router ID 101.0.0.1, seq 0x8000000E
*Mar  1 00:49:32.551: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 length 76 LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:49:32.555: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 length 76 LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:49:40.335: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.1.10 on Serial0/0 length 76 LSA count 1\

 

Configuring Area 0 router with Authentication – Effects and logs

ABR-1-0#

interface Serial0/1
 ip address 192.0.0.17 255.255.255.252
 ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 dracula
 serial restart-delay 0
!
router ospf 1
 log-adjacency-changes
 area 0 authentication message-digest
 area 1 virtual-link 101.0.0.1 message-digest-key 1 md5 dracula
 network 1.1.1.4 0.0.0.3 area 1
 network 101.0.0.2 0.0.0.0 area 0
 network 192.0.0.16 0.0.0.3 area 0

ABR-1-0(config-router)#

*Mar  1 00:24:33.475: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 192.0.0.18 on Serial0/1 from FULL to DOWN, Neig
hbor Down: Dead tim ip address 192.0.0.17 255.255.255.252 

ABR-VL-R8#debug ip ospf adj

*Mar  1 00:26:29.507: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 1.1.1.6, OSPF_VL0 : Mismatch Authentication type. Input pac
ket specified type 2, we use type 0
*Mar  1 00:26:31.491: OSPF: 101.0.0.2 address 1.1.1.6 on OSPF_VL0 is dead
*Mar  1 00:26:31.491: OSPF: 101.0.0.2 address 1.1.1.6 on OSPF_VL0 is dead, state DOWN
*Mar  1 00:26:31.495: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighb
or Down: Dead timer expired
*Mar  1 00:26:32.003: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 1, router ID 101.0.0.1, seq 0x80000004
*Mar  1 00:26:32.003: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 0, router ID 101.0.0.1, seq 0x80000003
*Mar  1 00:26:34.311: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 1.1.1.6, OSPF_VL0 : Mismatch Authentication type. Input pac
ket specified type 2, we use type 0
*Mar  1 00:26:39.059: OSPF: Rcv pkt from 1.1.1.6, OSPF_VL0 : Mismatch Authentication type. Input pac
ket specified type 2, we use type 0

! !  After adding the md5 authentication statement  ! !

*Mar  1 00:42:50.971: OSPF: Send with youngest Key 1
*Mar  1 00:42:51.291: OSPF: 2 Way Communication to 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1, state 2WAY
*Mar  1 00:42:51.291: OSPF: Send DBD to 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1 seq 0xF8F opt 0x72 flag 0x7 len 32
*Mar  1 00:42:51.295: OSPF: Send with youngest Key 1
*Mar  1 00:42:51.299: OSPF: Send with youngest Key 1
*Mar  1 00:42:51.575: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1 seq 0xD88 opt 0x72 flag 0x7 len 32  m
tu 0 state EXSTART
*Mar  1 00:42:51.575: OSPF: NBR Negotiation Done. We are the SLAVE
*Mar  1 00:42:51.579: OSPF: Send DBD to 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1 seq 0xD88 opt 0x72 flag 0x2 len 212
*Mar  1 00:42:51.583: OSPF: Send with youngest Key 1
*Mar  1 00:42:51.659: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1 seq 0xD89 opt 0x72 flag 0x3 len 212
mtu 0 state EXCHANGE
*Mar  1 00:42:51.663: OSPF: Send DBD to 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1 seq 0xD89 opt 0x72 flag 0x0 len 32
*Mar  1 00:42:51.667: OSPF: Send with youngest Key 1
*Mar  1 00:42:51.787: OSPF: Rcv DBD from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1 seq 0xD8A opt 0x72 flag 0x1 len 32  m
tu 0 state EXCHANGE
*Mar  1 00:42:51.791: OSPF: Exchange Done with 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1
*Mar  1 00:42:51.791: OSPF: Send LS REQ to 101.0.0.2 length 48 LSA count 4
*Mar  1 00:42:51.795: OSPF: Send with youngest Key 1
*Mar  1 00:42:51.795: OSPF: Send DBD to 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1 seq 0xD8A opt 0x72 flag 0x0 len 32
*Mar  1 00:42:51.799: OSPF: Send with youngest Key 1
*Mar  1 00:42:51.803: OSPF: Rcv LS REQ from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1 length 84 LSA count 5
*Mar  1 00:42:51.807: OSPF: Send with youngest Key 1
*Mar  1 00:42:51.807: OSPF: Send UPD to 1.1.1.6 on OSPF_VL1 length 172 LSA count 5
*Mar  1 00:42:52.139: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1 length 160 LSA count 4
*Mar  1 00:42:52.143: OSPF: Synchronized with 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1, state FULL
*Mar  1 00:42:52.143: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1 from LOADING to FULL, Loa
ding Done

*Mar  1 00:42:52.651: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 1, router ID 101.0.0.1, seq 0x80000006
*Mar  1 00:42:52.655: OSPF: Send with youngest Key 1
*Mar  1 00:42:52.659: OSPF: Build router LSA for area 0, router ID 101.0.0.1, seq 0x80000005
*Mar  1 00:42:52.667: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 101.0.0.2 on OSPF_VL1 length 88 LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:42:52.671: OSPF: Rcv LS UPD from 1.1.30.1 on Serial0/0 length 76 LSA count 1
*Mar  1 00:42:54.647: OSPF: Send with youngest Key 1

 

‘sh ip ospf virtual-links’ indicates Message digest authentication is enabled for the Virtual Link.

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October 29, 2008 Posted by | Protocols - OSPF | | Leave a comment